“Disability is part of the human conditions. Almost everyone will be temporarily or permanently impaired at some point in life, and those who survive to old age will experience increasing difficulties in functioning”(WHO World report on Disability 2011). Disability is the umbrella term for impairment, activity limitation and participation restriction referring to the negative aspects of the interaction between an individual (with a health condition) and that individuals contextual factors (environmental and personal factors).
Disability is complex, dynamic, multidimensional and often challenged from diverse group of researchers and social movements. A strong dichotomous approach to disabilities prevailed overtime – The Medical model and Social model. Yet a balanced approach giving appropriate weight to different aspect of disability is required to confront disabilities.
The WHO has developed a conceptual frame work for disabilities from 1984 onwards – The ICIDH1,ICIDH2 and ICF that understands functioning and disability as dynamic interaction between Health Conditions contextual factors, both personal and environmental. This concept is now promoted as a “Bio-Psycho-social model”, represent a workable compromise between medical and social model.